Materials

Copper / Brass / Bronze

Copper is a widely used metal with a number of advantages, it is recognised for being ductile, malleable, and remarkably effective as conducter on both heat and electricity. Meanwhile, Brass is more resistant to corrosion than copper, and Bronze have the best corrosion resistance.

Copper / Brass / Bronze can be 3dprinted, casted, melted, formed, machined and extruded, meaning that it can be manufactured into a variety of shapes and then subsequently fabricated to suit a whole variety of uses.

When selecting a material, consider the material properties, manufacturability characteristics, cosmetic appearance, and cost.

Copper Alloy

Copper is a widely used metal with a number of advantages, it is recognised for being ductile, malleable, and remarkably effective as conducter on both heat and electricity. Meanwhile, Brass is more resistant to corrosion than copper, and Bronze have the best corrosion resistance.

Copper / Brass / Bronze can be 3dprinted, casted, melted, formed, machined and extruded, meaning that it can be manufactured into a variety of shapes and then subsequently fabricated to suit a whole variety of uses.

When selecting a material, consider the material properties, manufacturability characteristics, cosmetic appearance, and cost.

Select the Right Manufacturing Solution

Manufacturing Process:
Metal 3D Printing (SLM) 

Due to its material properties, copper is perfect for electronics, heat exchangers, induction coils, engine components, and any other application needing strong conductivity.

The alloys Cu, CuCP, and CuCrZr, which are created and tested for use with 3D printing, are part of the copper family.


Copper Alloy (Cu)

With strong electrical and thermal conductivity, this high purity copper is appropriate for a variety of applications.

Copper Alloy (Cu) Properties

Chemical composition in compliance with approx. 99.6% pure
Ultimate Tensile Strength (MPa) 190
Yield Strength (MPa) 140
Elongation at Break (%) 20

 

Copper Alloy (CuCP)

The exceptional thermal and electrical conductivity of this commercially pure copper—up to 100% IACS—makes it perfect for inductors, electric motors, and many other applications.

Copper Alloy (CuCP) Properties

Chemical composition in compliance with approx. 99.5% pure
Ultimate Tensile Strength (MPa) 165
Yield Strength (MPa) 235
Elongation at Break (%) 45

 

Copper Alloy (CuCrZr)

This copper alloy combines strong mechanical qualities with a desirable balance of electrical and thermal conductivity.

Copper Alloy (CuCrZr) Properties

Chemical composition in compliance with C18150 and CW106C
Ultimate Tensile Strength (MPa) 300
Yield Strength (MPa) 200
Elongation at Break (%) 30

 

Copper Alloy (CuNi2SiCr)

CuNi2SiCr is a copper alloy that able to be thermally cured. CuNi2SiCr materials typically have strong stiffness even at high temperatures and a suitable mix of thermal and electrical conductivity. Due to its strong resistance to corrosion, this copper alloy is perfect for wear and sliding applications. CuNi2SiCr is utilized for tooling because of its high level of wear resistance and great hardness.

Copper Alloy (CuNi2SiCr) Properties

As Built Heat Treated
Tensile Strength (MPa) 251 ± 10 595 ± 10
Yield Strength (MPa) 192 ± 40 508 ± 20
Elongation at Break (%) 34 ± 5 15 ± 5
E-Modulus (GPa) 89 ± 5 97 ± 5

 

Brass

An alloy of copper and zinc is called brass. The material comes in a plethora of hues and finishing options and is very adaptable. The same degree of intricacy as silver and gold printing may be anticipated.

Brass Properties

Composition Cu 80%, Zn 15%, Tin 5%
Tensile Strength (N/mm²) 422
Elongation, annealed (%) 62
Density (gm/cc) 8.62
Hardness (Hv) 65

 

Bronze

The bronze used by VMetal is available in two finishes: polished and raw. Its surface is reddish-yellow, making it the ideal material for ornamental items, jewellery, belt buckles, and other items. Not to mention, it has a tougher surface that resists oxidation. When it comes to 3D printing metal, bronze is a reasonably priced option.

Brass Properties

Composition Cu 90%, Tin 10%
Tensile Strength (N/mm²) 70-800
Elongation, annealed (%) 0-70
Tensile module (GPa) 96-120
Melting point (°C) 913

 

Manufacturing Process:

 

Copper 101 & 110

The outstanding thermal and electrical conductivity of copper alloys 101 and 110 make them the apparent option for bus bars, wire connections, and other electrical applications. Due to its purity (99.99 percent copper), 101 (also known as super-conductive copper) offers better conductivity, but 110 is typically simpler to process and hence more affordable.

Copper 101 Properties
Chemical composition 99.99% CU min, 0.0003 PH
Tensile Strength(MPa) 220
Elongation at Break (%) 55
Hardness (Brinell) 40
Density (g/cc) 8.89

 

Copper 110 Properties

Chemical composition 99.99% CU min, 0.05 OXYGEN Max
Tensile Strength(MPa) 455
Elongation at Break (%) 55
Hardness (Brinell) 83
Density (g/cc) 8.93

 

Brass 360

Due to the highest lead percentage of any brass alloy, 360 Brass is also known as free machining brass. There is less tool wear associated with its high machinability. It is often used for a range of components, including gears, lock parts, pipe fittings, and aesthetic uses.

Brass 360 Properties

Chemical composition Copper 61.5%, Zinc 35.5%, Lead 3.0%, Iron 0.35%
Tensile Strength(MPa) 338-469
Elongation at Break (%) 53
Rockwell Hardness B78
Density (g/cc) 8.50

 

Bronze 932

As a result of the tin, iron, and zinc it contains, 932 bronze is a high strength alloy with good wear and corrosion resistance. Bearings, bushings, and thrust washers are the most frequent uses of it. Heat treatment cannot be done on 932 bronze.

Bronze 932 Properties

Chemical composition Copper 83%, Lead 7%, Tin 7%, Zinc 3%
Tensile Strength(MPa) 240
Elongation at Break (%) 20
Rockwell Hardness B27
Density (g/cc) 8.94

 

Manufacturing Process:

Copper alloy castings, bronze castings, and brass castings

Copper and copper-based alloys, like many other alloys, can be shaped into extremely intricate components, which makes them perfect for investment casting. These materials can be quite sensitive to price changes, which makes waste very expensive, especially if CNC machining and/or forging are being considered as manufacturing processes to create your production item.

Investment casting allows VMetal to make copper-based castings in low and large volume runs with net or nearly-net shapes, obviating the need for extra machining when utilizing a forging or machining a part from billet. Both have high CNC machine time costs and low returns on alloy scrap material. The ability to produce very complicated manufacturing components using investment casting instead of these other specialized methods is a significant advantage.

Brass Casting

Copper and several copper-based alloys may be used by VMetal to create precise castings. Castings made of brass are maybe the most typical. Due to their superior finishing and polishing capabilities, brass alloys, commonly referred to as “red-brass” or “yellow-brass” alloys, are mostly utilized in plumbing and door hardware.

Bronze Casting

Bronze, a copper-based alloy that is frequently used in bearings and other comparable components, is a very versatile material that provides a broad range of qualities from a large number of alloys and compositions. For instance, tin offers increased strength. Lead makes bronze more lubricious but reduces its strength. An alloy of bronze with more aluminum and manganese is perfect for uses that need both high strength and corrosion resistance.

Additionally, because to its capacity to expand immediately prior to setting, bronze has traditionally been the ideal metal for sculptures. The most minute details may be brought to life thanks to this feature. Furthermore, when bronze cools, it tightens, making it simpler to remove the mold.

Manufacturing Process:

Although copper may be produced in a variety of shapes, sheets are the most common form. After all, copper sheets are necessary for a huge variety of applications. There is always a purpose for copper sheet, no matter how thick it is. Because this metal item is so well-liked, it might be challenging to locate a supplier of copper sheets whenever you need them. Here are a few uses for copper sheet metal.

Copper Sheet Metal Applications

  • Electrical transfer
    The majority of the belt pulleys, sprockets, sheaves, and bushings used in power transmission systems are constructed from strong, wear-resistant metals. Numerous copper alloys meet the requirements.
  • Heat Exchanger
    Due to copper’s high heat capacity, the bulk of its components are constructed of copper or its alloys.
  • Plumbing Fitting
    Copper is the best material for flashing because it resists corrosion. Even though copper is pricey, many people do not consider it to be practical even though it is ideal for roofing.
  • Welding Fixtures
    To assure the quality of the finished product, welding fixtures must be used to secure the geometry of product pieces before welding. Copper alloys are perfect for such a use.

List of Materials

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